Beyond the Pleasure Principle

Sigmund Freud

Beyond the Pleasure Principle () is a 1920 essay by Sigmund Freud that marks a major turning point in his theoretical approach. Previously, Freud attributed most human behavior to the sexual instinct (Eros or libido). With this essay, Freud went "beyond" the simple pleasure principle, developing his drive theory with the addition of the death drive(s), Todestrieb[e]. (Thanatos is the Greek personification of death, and some of Freud's followers refer to the death drive by this name.)